Fake 4K – When 4K is not Really 4K

UHD Blu Ray is oftentimes made from a source only 6% higher in resolution than a normal Blu Ray. Be aware of this when buying…

How Movies are Prepared for the Cinema and the Home

Movies are normally shot on film or digital cameras. In either case, the usable resolution is between 4K and 10K depending on the medium. However, even movies shot on optical need to be converted to something called the Digital Intermediate (DI) to do digital effects, colour grading and other digital manipulation to the image before released to cinemas including being printed back onto optical print for older cinemas as well as release onto home video. Therefore the Digital Intermediate limits the final resolution and picture quality attainable from the source.

Unfortunately, most of the movies even now are finished using a 2K DI. Did you know that 2K has a resolution of 2048×1080? Compare that to Full HD (1080p) with a resolution of 1920×1080 and you are only getting an increase of 128 vertical lines which amounts to 6% of a resolution boost over 1080p. It is in fact so small that you are unlikely to notice it.

Enter UHD Blu Ray

For any movie finished with a 2K DI, what the movie studios do is upscale the 2K DI to a 4K image, which is almost 4x the resolution of the original creating extra pixels in the process. They cannot add any more detail, they simply use algorithms to guess the extra information. This can work to some degree just like the upscaling of your TV can work well with 1080p material. But then why not save the money, buy the Blu Ray and let your TV upscale – or something super-capable like Panasonic’s UHD players.

To add insult to injury, they then put it on a disk that’s almost the same size as your standard Blu Ray: 66GB versus 50GB disks as the 100GB disks are not really used, only for longer movies. They then compress using an algorithm that actually produces a slightly softer picture if not given enough bandwidth so really you arrive at a picture that’s not really better than 1080p for a price much higher than the standard Blu Ray. This is why reviewers are sometimes hard pressed to find much difference in detail between the Blu Ray and UHD versions. This is atrocious in my opinion.

Now granted, there are UHD disks that have been produced from a higher quality DI such as 3.2K, 4K and very rarely 8K. Those are the disks worthy of your attention. Always check before buying. 4K is not always 4K. Unfortunately, the format isn’t going to shine until they start using the 100GB disks as standard to give the bitrate room to breathe and start using 6K and 8K DIs. Then we will see what the format is really capable of. The current state of the format is sub-standard compared to what it could be.

To understand if a movie is real 4K or fake 4K, check out www.RealOrFake4K.com, which keeps tabs on the resolution of the DIs for each release, and even whether the release was put on a 100GB disk or not.

Now of course, there is more to UHD than just resolution, there is (the messy world of) HDR and also Wide Color Gamut (WCG). But that’s for another article.

Ninja Gaiden Black on Xbox One X is Tremendously Handsome

The First Wave of Original Xbox Titles

I consider Ninja Gaiden on the original Xbox as still one of the best action games of all times. So when Microsoft announced that they would be bringing Original Xbox games to the Xbox One and that Ninja Gaiden would be in the first wave of titles, I was excited!

Upscaling – Not Just Any Upscaling

Emulating the original Xbox is no small engineering achievement, but little did we know that Microsoft wasn’t done there. Microsoft’s backward compatibility team figured out a way to upscale these titles to 1080p on Xbox One and 4K on Xbox One X at the emulator level. It isn’t just a simple video output upscaling, but the actual game on the emulator is rendering out 4x (on Xbox One) or 16x (on Xbox One X) the resolution of the original game with antialiasing thrown in for a super smooth image that is an awe to behold on the Xbox One X especially.

Xbox Graphics

People like to throw figures out: these days it’s teraflops, back in the day we were talking about vertices or triangles a second. However, I think those numbers are pretty meaningless with regards to the kind of image quality a machine is able to produce.

I was never drawn into the Playstation world of games because I found their graphical quality lacking in major areas: objects were too angular, textures were blurry and lacked detail and jaggies were all over the image. This is because Sony make some rather poor design choices when it came to their machines, with the exception of the PS4. With PS1 and PS2, they didn’t have much of a choice due to the available technology to them, however, with PS3 they had only themselves to blame. The machine may have had enough power to complete with the Xbox 360, but the truth is that the machine is not even capable to surpass the original Xbox with regards to graphics and here is why:

From the original Xbox, Microsoft built features into the GPUs to allow for shortcuts in rendering. One of these techniques in the original Xbox was called bump mapping (or DOT3 mapping). Bump mapping allowed the machine to simulate more detail in its textures and more details in the character models than would have been possible otherwise. The Xbox GPU also had pretty sophisticated pixel and vertex shading for the time.

Ninja Gaiden on Xbox One X

So how does Ninja Gaiden hold up after so many years upscaled to 4K with the original assets? Quite simply stunning! I have the PS3 copy of the game as well and running through the same areas in the game, my PS3 copy looks flat and outright horrible in some areas. The Xbox One X image is jaggy-free, has better lighting (except for the first chapter which was re-mastered on the PS3) and beautiful running at 60fps. The original assets hold up remarkably well and the original art really shines through. It is clear the original Xbox was capable of some awesome graphics, just the low resolution was holding the image quality back.

Tremendous job! The Wizards at Microsoft have done it. Now I can’t wait to play some of my favourite games on the platform such as:

  • Outrun 2 – although there may be licensing issues with this game because it had to be pulled off retail years ago – Microsoft, sort out a way to replace music in games so this isn’t an issue!!
  • House of the Dead III – the original Xbox was an arcade powerhouse! This was so much fun.
  • Dead or Alive 3 and Dear or Alive Ultimate (DOA 1 and DOA 2) – come on! Make Xbox One the first platform to have all Dear or Alive games, please. Also bring DOA 4 from Xbox 360! While you are at it, bring DOA Beach Volleyball 1, 2 and 3 so the spin-offs are also on one console. The only thing holding this back might be Tecmo, however, now that they are finished milking DOA 5, they might allow it. Come on, guys!
  • Rallisport Challenge 1 and 2 – they are classics!
  • Top Spin – I still love the original. Awesome!
  • MotoGP 1, 2 and 3 – the original games were some of the best motorcycle racing games on any platform. Still haven’t found any that compares – MotoGP 07 on Xbox 360 comes close.
  • Dino Crisis 3 – this game got some beating from the reviewers, but it is one of the best Sci Fi puzzle shooters on the platform with beautiful graphics and cut-scenes to die for. It is a personal favourite of mine!
  • Brute Force – why not!
  • Unreal Championship 2 – oh yes!

The Future of Xbox Backwards Compatibility

Now that Microsoft has figured out how to upscale original and Xbox 360 games to 1080p and 4K, I can see a future where they enable this for all backward compatible games (400+ and counting). Enabling it and testing it game by game might be tedious, so it would be great if the feature could be switched on and off for titles that have not been tested with the feature yet so the full library can benefit straight away- and we can turn it off per game if the game has glitches because of it until MS gets around to manually updating it. Maybe add some options for upscaling such as 1440p / 1800p / 4K so we can configure it and see what works for now. I know it’s a lot to ask for but dare to dream!

What’s more, this opens the possibility of Xbox One games that were not patched with 4K support for the Xbox One X to actually be upscaled to 4K using an emulation layer / swapping out render targets at run-time. Some of those games currently run at 900p with lack of AA. Even if 4K isn’t possible, 1800p (note I didn’t write 1080p!!) should be easily possible for older Xbox One titles.

One more thing: if they could enable this for all OG Xbox and Xbox 360 games WITH at least 2x AA (preferably 4x where possible), then Xbox One X would be THE PLATFORM to play 3 generations of Xbox games at the best image quality possible. Please make it happen!



UHD 4K Blu Ray – a year on

Reflecting on UHD Blu Ray as a format a year after its introduction…

Any video disc standard of past has taken time to shine. Both DVD and Blu Ray in fact took a year to start producing content that was better than the previous standards – VHS and DVD respectively. I remember the first round of Blu Ray discs: barely better than DVDs when the DVDs were played on top of the range hardware having the best chips for cleaning, filtering and sharpening the image. What I have seen with UHD Blu Ray is déjà vu all over again.

UHD Blu Ray – the Theoretical Benefits

There are three major benefits of the new UHD standard that should theoretically overshoot Blu Ray by a large margin:

  1. 4K Resolution: 4x the pixel density of Blu Ray resulting in a much sharper image.
  2. Wide Colour Gamut (BT.2020): a much wider range of colours that can be displayed on screen resulting in more realistic colours when used correctly.
  3. High Dynamic Range (HDR): giving the image more contrast, more depth, and a much higher range of brightness variations depending on the display the disc is played on. The brightness variation is not only in the highlights – for those in the know – as that is only the recommendation for use. However, HDR is already being used in more creative ways.

The Reality Today

Unfortunately, a year on we are still waiting to be amazed by the new standard and here is why:

  1. Standard Blu Ray is a very mature technology. In fact, the video compression technology (AVC or H.264) for standard Blu Ray has had more than 10 years to mature to ensure image quality, integrity and sharpness are at their optimum. The compression technology for UHD Blu Ray (HEVC or H.265) on the other hand is still in its infancy by comparison. It has not reached the same level of efficiency in its ability to keep all the detail in the picture as AVC has, nowhere near in fact. [note: HEVC is more efficient than AVC but comparatively looking at its own life-cycle it isn’t at the same maturity!] There is a lot more to come from HEVC in the coming years. However, we are now at a point where HEVC is starting to shine.
  2. The Blu Ray players, upscaling chips and upscaling technologies we have for standard Blu Ray have also had 10 years to mature and have they matured alright! We have image enhancement technologies using contrast enhancement (Darbee) as well as Super Resolution algorithms (e.g. JVC’s Eshift, Sony’s Reality Creation) that when used together easily rival UHD 4K images by analysing information on pixel by pixel and frame by frame basis to fill in the missing pixels.
  3. The data-rate used for the first round of UHD Blu Rays is still only at just above standard Blu Ray levels. This is because only the 50GB and 66GB UHD Blu Rays have been efficient enough to manufacture. The promised 100GB discs are not yet standard. This is a huge drawback.
  4. The compression (or authoring) software used to make UHD Blu Rays is nowhere near as mature as it is for Blu Ray. This means compressionists have had less control over where bits are allocated for the most optimal picture quality for these first year discs.
  5. However, even if they used the new 100GB discs, the images wouldn’t be sharper. In fact, around 95% of movies released on UHD Blu Ray in the first year were sourced from 2K masters upscaled to 4K as opposed to proper 4K images. This is partly because most films – especially that need heavy CGI – upto now have been finished at 2K resolution. To go back and re-do the CGI at 4K would be very costly. However, the trend is now changing due to the 4K push.
  6. Even if a movie is finished at 4K, we know from working with standard 1080p Blu Ray that the best examples of the format are those discs that have been sourced from imagery 4x the resolution: in this case 4K. This is because there is more information to work with when cleaning up the picture for digital storage. Also, more high-frequency information – and therefore finer detail – can be captured by downscaling an image from a higher resolution digital source. So it stands to conclude that the best UHD discs will come from digital intermediates (DIs) that are at least 6K or higher resolution. In fact this is what we see as the best examples of the format. More on that in a moment.

If the difficulty of getting the imagery captured, prepared and compressed wasn’t enough, there are a few design and few teething issues with the format as well:

  1. HDR as designed for UHD Blu Ray only takes into consideration flat panel TVs and not projection. This is an oversight of massive proportions. It isn’t even that the cinema HDR standard wasn’t ready, as Dolby Vision (one of the HDR standards) is used for Cinema HDR in the US. Even Dolby didn’t push for this to be in the standard, as Dolby Vision for UHD Blu Ray and in the cinema are two different standards. Having said that, a year on we have ways to calibrate projectors that emulate Dolby Vision or HDR10 (the most commonly used HDR standard), but it is not fully accurate to what the director intended. In fact, we have no way of getting fully accurate imagery for projection for HDR at this point.
  2. HDR10, the most commonly used standard, has had no dynamic meta-data until recently. Dynamic meta-data is required for HDR as the mastering displays that UHD Blu Rays are created on have vastly different performance characteristics than our TVs and projectors in the home. Our TVs and projectors have a fraction of the colour palette or brightness to play with when displaying the images, therefore we need a way to tell the display how to interpret the data to be accurate to what the director intended. Dolby Vision has this information but HDR10 is now catching up, slowly.
  3. The Wide Colour Gamut should be something that allows a more accurate representation of what we see in the cinema. The cinema standard colour gamut, DCI P3, fits into the colour gamut of UHD Blu Ray (Bt.2020). However, instead what has been happening in some cases is movie studios thinking they should differentiate the UHD Blu Rays by “turning colour up to 10” and using a palette that at times does not look natural, or faithful to the cinema presentation. They do this to give you more of a “thrill”, however, this is where immaturity of using the format shows. It destroys the original creative intent.

The Future Starts Now

I believe the future is here. We are now starting to see UHD Blu Rays that are in fact bettering Blu Rays by a wide margin due to some of the above issues having been addressed. I will mention two that have just come out, almost exactly a year after launching the first round of UHD Blu Rays:

  1. Planet Earth II: this BBC series was captured at mostly 6K resolution using some of the best cameras and downscaled to UHD Blu Ray. It really shows what the format can do today.
  2. Passengers (2016): this heart-warming Sci Fi was also captured at over 6K resolution and downscaled for capture onto UHD Blu Ray. What’s more, the movie’s colour palette is faithful to the original cinema presentation. This is how UHD Blu Ray should be done, ladies and gentlemen. The presentation is a nice cut above Blu Ray.

What’s Next for the Format?

As we have seen with Blu Ray and with DVD before it, UHD Blu Ray is just coming into its teenage years. The format still has a lot of road to travel and we can expect the following as it matures:

  1. Compression technology, HEVC, will improve further over the next couple of years to be more efficient and also to produce sharper and more nuanced images.
  2. Authoring software will improve to provide optimal bitrate to the right places in the bitstream.
  3. 100GB discs will become the norm providing almost twice the bitrate of today’s disks.
  4. Image enhancement technologies such as Darbee and Super Resolution algorithms will be adopted for 4K images, bringing out even more detail in the picture.
  5. The majority of movies will be scanned and then finished at 6K and even 8K resolutions, providing the best starting point for retaining high-frequency detail and therefore image sharpness.
  6. HDR technology will continue to mature both in its implementation and in its use by movie studios.
  7. Movie studios will stop playing with Wide Colour Gamut as a new toy and will respect the creative intent and integrity of the original works.

So in conclusion, we haven’t yet seen the best this format will be able to do. The format has a lot of headroom to improve – in fact more than previous technologies – and we will see some phenomenal picture quality from this format over time.